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The best diet for weight loss

Tamara Willner
Written by

Tamara Willner

Medically reviewed by

Fiona Moncrieff

11 min read
Last updated July 2024

The best diet for weight loss: The bottom line

  • You need to be in a calorie deficit to lose weight, but this doesn’t mean you need to count calories.
  • What’s important for long-term weight loss is how you feel when you’re in a calorie deficit.
  • If you feel restricted, constantly hungry, and always thinking about food: then you’re unlikely to maintain your approach for long enough to sustain your weight loss.
  • Research has shown that lower-carb diets based on whole foods are easier to follow during weight loss.
  • Lower-carb diets tend to help keep you feeling fuller for longer and stabilise your blood sugar levels.
  • Second Nature recommends a lower-carb diet based on whole foods and research published in the BMJ shows we’re twice as effective at supporting weight loss compared to our competitors in the NHS.

To lose weight, you need to eat fewer calories than you use up. The best diet for weight loss is the diet that lets you do that in a way that does not affect your quality of life.

Calorie counting can be very restrictive and unsustainable, so we must explore other ways to keep a good energy balance for weight loss.

‘What should I eat to lose weight?’ is one of the most frequently asked questions. The answer is simple but often complicated by personal preferences, dietary requirements, and people’s perceptions of healthy eating.

Headlines don’t help – a tendency to sensationalise nutritional research in the news means we’re bombarded with seemingly conflicting advice.

Do carbs make you gain weight? Is saturated fat bad for you? Oh wait, is it healthy? What about eggs? Should you avoid any of these foods if you want to lose weight?

The best way to decide is to weigh the evidence for different diets (and by diets here, we merely mean the eating plan you choose rather than a restrictive regimen).

Second Nature’s approach: Indulgent but supports weight loss 

In 2022, the NHS published data in the British Medical Journal from the National Weight Management and Diabetes Prevention programme, where five providers delivered weight loss services in the UK.

The results showed that after 12 months, Second Nature was more than twice as effective as the four other providers.

How does Second Nature’s approach work?

We approach nutrition and healthy eating differently. We don’t count calories, track macros, weigh food, or assign strict targets on your intake.

We provide you with evidence-based guidance on a balanced diet and teach you to understand what your physical and emotional drivers for eating are to reach your weight loss goals.

We also provide tools, such as our hunger scale and mindful eating techniques, that help you tune into your physical hunger cues and manage your food choices.

Alongside this, we help you build healthy habits that you can enjoy for a lifetime to help you maintain a healthy weight.

Our feedback inbox is filled with people like Jo, who lost over eight stone to achieve a healthy body weight on Second Nature after following our nutrition guidelines and receiving the support of our app and health coaches.

The difference is that members of Second Nature learn to love food again. They’re no longer restricted. They’re liberated.

If you’d like to join over 150,000 others who’ve joined Second Nature, lost weight and kept it off, then click here to take our health quiz.

Otherwise, keep reading as we look at how weight loss diets work and what you need to do to lose weight sustainably in the long run.

More energy out, less energy in

While this is in line with the old saying ‘eat less, move more’, and this is generally true, it doesn’t necessarily mean calorie counting.

The best diet for losing fat is the one that enables you to consume less than you use up while being in line with your personal preference.

The important thing is finding a way of eating that suits you best and that you can stick to in the long term.

So many people have experienced failing a diet, the most common reason being that they didn’t have enough willpower.

However, not being able to stick to a diet long term usually means that you didn’t fail the diet, but rather the diet failed you. If you can’t stick to it, then it’s probably just not the right one for your individual needs.

Key points:

  • The basic principle to achieve weight loss is less energy in and more energy out.
  • The key is to find a diet that suits your personal needs and allows that to happen.

What about calories?

While calorie counting is not generally a sustainable weight loss diet technique, total calorie intake impacts weight more than different macronutrient ratios (i.e. how much carbohydrate, fat, and protein you eat).

Many studies comparing diets with different ratios of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins showed that the total amount of calories determined weight loss.

One study kept participants in a ward throughout (to eliminate any opportunities to consume more than reported).

It gave them either a low-carb or high-carb diet over six weeks. After six weeks, both groups lost similar amounts of weight, inches off their waist.

The same results were seen in a 12-week study and a study that compared different amounts of fats and proteins while keeping carbohydrates the same.

So, completely different diets all resulted in a similar amount of weight loss, demonstrating that there is no one size fits all approach and the best diet is one that you can keep up long term.

Calorie counting is one way of estimating how much you’re taking in compared to how much you’re using up, and many famous diet clubs, such as Weight Watchers, endorse it.

However, it is by no means the only way. Focusing on eating balanced meals and being mindful of how much food you need to feel full is a much more effective technique in the long term.

For some people, obsessing over the numbers is counterproductive and leads to eating more.

Many calorie counters often ignore that exercise burns energy, which will help put you in an energy deficit, and has a whole host of other health benefits.

So, as well as focusing on a healthy diet, see if you can incorporate more exercise into your routine.

Key points:

  • Total calorie intake is a determining factor of weight loss.
  • It is possible to be mindful of intake without counting calories.

How do most weight loss diets work, then?

Most popular weight loss diets, for example, Atkins or Dukan, aim to reduce your overall energy intake. They do this by swapping carbohydrates for less calorie-dense foods (non-starchy vegetables such as peppers and broccoli).

The Atkins and Dukan diets are both high-fat, high-protein but low-carb. We digest fats and proteins more slowly than carbs, which generally makes us feel fuller for longer.

Advocates of this diet explain that you remain feeling satisfied and not hungry while still being able to reduce your overall energy intake.

These examples of weight loss diets are very restrictive regimens which are not realistically sustainable for most people.

However, the rationale of reducing your overall intake while still feeling satisfied is a great example of how to approach a sustainable weight loss diet.

Key points:

  • Most weight loss diets aim in some way to reduce your energy intake.
  • Rigorous diets that eliminate food groups are not sustainable in the long term.

Should I cut out carbs for weight loss?

Carbs have been demonised in the media recently. Although reducing the number of carbs you eat in favour of healthy fats and protein could help some people lose weight, eliminating carbs is by no means necessary.

People tend to shed what is known as ‘water weight’ when they eat fewer carbs. As your body uses up its glycogen stores, it releases water particles bound to glycogen, and you will appear to be losing significant amounts of weight quite quickly.

This is what’s usually happening when people go on a crash diet – and is also partly why the weight is so easy to put back on. It’s mostly just water. It’s not the same as body fat loss.

The more extreme ketogenic (keto) diet – which eliminates carbohydrates almost entirely and focuses on eating a lot of fats instead – deprives the body of its primary fuel source, glucose.

The body then creates new metabolic pathways and starts burning fat (or, more accurately, ketones produced from the breakdown of fats) for energy instead. This process is called ketosis.

This may sound ideal, but while a keto diet does burn fat, it’s pretty challenging to follow effectively in the long term, as one slip-up will take you out of ketosis temporarily.

Overall, a lower-carb diet, but not a carb-free one, is probably the most effective way to lose weight and keep it off.

A study comparing the weight loss over two years between low-fat, low-carb, and Mediterranean diets demonstrated that all diets produced short-term weight loss, with low-carb producing the most.

At the two-year mark, the low-carb group had maintained weight loss significantly more than the low-fat group.

Graph depicting weight loss over 2 years for a low-fat, low-carb and Mediterranean diets.

Here’s some inspiration for eating lower-carb, complete with recipes, easy swaps, and ideas.

Key points:

  • It’s not necessary to eliminate carbs from your diet to achieve weight loss.
  • Reducing carbs, in favour of healthy fats, protein, and fibre from vegetables and other plant foods can be an excellent way to reduce your overall energy intake while remaining satisfied.

What’s the best diet for people with type 2 diabetes?

The evidence isn’t too different for people with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes.

Focusing purely on weight loss is still about reducing your overall intake rather than adjusting the ratios of protein, fat, and carbs. However, different macronutrient ratios seem to have other metabolic advantages.

Some evidence showed that women lost more fat, especially belly fat, on a high-protein diet compared to a low-protein diet.

At the same time, another study concluded higher protein meant women lost less muscle when losing weight.

Preserving muscle can aid weight loss, as having muscle increases your resting metabolic rate (how much energy your body burns at rest), which in turn helps to improve your energy balance.

Those living with type 2 diabetes need to control their blood sugar levels, as their bodies do not respond to insulin which controls this in healthy individuals.

The lower carb diet in the previously mentioned six-week study appeared to have a more favourable impact on blood sugar levels than the higher carb diet, which may make it a better option for someone at risk of type 2 diabetes.

But for weight loss alone, it was the overall energy intake that mattered; in any case, weight loss is associated with better glycaemic control.

Key points:

  • For the aim of weight loss, the evidence is similar for individuals living with type 2 diabetes as it is for healthy individuals.
  • As blood sugar levels are a focus in type 2 diabetes, low-carb diets can help prevent spikes in blood sugar compared to other diets.

Do fasting weight loss diets work?

As we have discussed, the important thing for weight loss is reducing overall energy intake, and fasting can help some people achieve that. Some people work well with the rules and structure of fasting diets.

Many fasting diets claim to aid weight loss. None of the fasting diets, including time-restricted feeding and intermittent fasting, limit your carbohydrate intake.

However, they reduce the time you spend eating, reducing energy intake for many people.

Fasting diets are certainly not for everyone, though, and the evidence is mixed. Some people will experience adverse side effects from not eating or eating very little for periods, while others may compensate elsewhere for skipped meals and end up eating more overall.

As with all the other diets mentioned, it’s about whether that way suits you.

Key points:

  • Fasting diets can help with weight loss but are by no means a requirement.
  • The majority of fasting diets work by providing a structure to limit energy intake.
  • More research needs to be done to confirm any benefits of fasting diets.

Fail-safe guidelines for any weight loss diet

Although many different diets can help with weight loss, some tips can be incorporated into all of them:

  • Avoid ultra-processed foods, such as biscuits, cakes and soft drinks.
  • Cut down on sugar.
  • Limit fruit juice and alcohol.
  • Build your meals around proteins (e.g. meat and pulses), healthy fats (e.g. olive oil and avocado) and non-starchy vegetables (e.g. peppers and courgette) rather than refined carbohydrates (e.g. white pasta).
  • Making a meal plan at the beginning of each week will help you stick to your chosen diet.
  • When you eat carbs, opt for whole grain versions, for example, brown rice over white rice.
  • Move your body as much as possible. If you’re using up more energy than you’re taking in, you will most likely lose weight.
  • Try to practise mindful eating and eat free from distractions (i.e. not in front of the TV).

Why we should play the long game

The problem with several diets is maintenance. As we have mentioned, many people may find them too restrictive and ultimately unsustainable in the long term.

Evidence shows that most people put the weight back on and then some when they ‘fall off the wagon’. Re-gaining weight can lead to restriction and create a cycle of bingeing and restraint, which may lead to yo-yo dieting and weight gain.

Maybe you’re a person who can happily count calories and stick to a certain amount without too much trouble (physical or psychological).

You may prefer not to count calories and opt for a diet that lets you eat as much as you like of certain foods because then you don’t have the mental barrier of restriction, and your body will self-regulate when you eat enough fats or protein.

You might be perfectly happy never to eat carbohydrates again, just as others may want to follow a vegetarian or vegan diet.

The important thing is to find a way of eating that means you are using up more energy than you are taking in without compromising your health, energy or happiness. Only you can work out what the best lifestyle change is for you.

Take home message

  • Highly restrictive diets may work in the short term but ultimately fail, and weight loss will not be maintained.
  • The bottom line is you should aim to use up more energy than you take in, and there are many different ways to achieve this.
  • Most weight loss diets work by reducing your overall energy intake in some way.
  • It is not necessary to eliminate carbs from your diet to lose weight.
  • Reducing carbs in place of healthy fats, lean protein, and fibre from vegetables and other plant foods may help you improve your energy balance while still feeling satisfied.
  • Those living with type 2 diabetes might experience other benefits from a low-carb diet, such as blood glucose regulation.
  • Fasting diets help some people by providing a structure and set of rules that are easy to follow but are not for everyone.
  • The best diet is the one you can stick to for the long term.

If you’d like to try a way of eating that helps you feel satisfied and full of energy and has been proven to support weight loss in the NHS, click here for our 7-day diet plan.

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Write a response

MS Vera Keohane

8 May, 2022

I do not have a so-called smart phone & have no intention of getting one. I do have a computer, I know nothing about ‘apps’ – will this weight loss programme still work for me? I take methotrexate for rheumatoid arthritis and Symbicort for severe (but well-controlled) asthma.


10 May, 2022

Hi Vera,

Thanks for your comment and interest in the programme!

As our programme has been primarily developed for use on a mobile app, we do recommend using a smart phone to take advantage of all the features available in-app. Our programme can be used on the website version however it is limited in resources compared to the app.

We’ve designed our programme to cater for people of many different abilities. That’s why all exercise recommendations you’ll see in our app can be adjusted to suit you. We always recommend that you follow advice from your physio or GP. If you’re still not sure whether our programme will suit you, you can contact us on to talk it through in more detail!


23 October, 2021

Will this diet work if you are taking medications for fibromyalgia, heart disease, hypothyroidism & previous heart attack following surgery ? I’ve tried so many diets to try rid myself of this weight which I gained after knee replacement & Heart attack.
Thank you so much.


2 November, 2021

Hi Pam,

Thanks for your comment and interest in our programme 🙂

We’d recommend speaking with your GP or relevant healthcare professional to find out how your medications impact changes in your nutrition and lifestyle.

Whilst we recognise that it may be harder to lose weight with an underactive thyroid, our guidelines are designed to help you make sustainable, healthy lifestyle changes. By following our dietary and exercise recommendations, you’ll be supported to lose weight sustainably and improve your overall wellbeing.

Our programme is designed to cater to people of many different abilities. That’s why all exercise recommendations you’ll see in our app can be adjusted to suit you.

When it comes to exercise, we encourage you to increase your overall level of activity by focusing on a simple step count first. We’ll start off with a step-count goal based on what’s achievable and realistic for you. We also have some fun at-home workouts to try! These are completely optional and we always recommend that you follow advice from your physio or GP.

If you’d like to learn more about our programme, you can take our health quiz here, or email with any questions 🙂


7 July, 2021

Hi there

How do I access the free 5 day plan? When I click the link it asks me to sign up and provide credit card details! Thank you.


22 July, 2021

Hi Tracey, please email to request our 5-day plan 🙂


3 July, 2021

Very informative. Written in a understandable way.


14 June, 2021

Hopefully it works

Richard Simon

20 June, 2020

Excellent article; useful, informative and motivating. Thank you.


21 April, 2020

“The best diet is the one that you can stick to for the long term!” Amen to that 😁😁👙👙.


18 November, 2019

Great read, informative and helpful. Thanks

Ime Turner

25 October, 2019

Very informative.


24 October, 2019

Nice to read a simple well written article on what can be rather confusing. Thank you

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